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However, several significant questions concerning CDMA still needed resolution. His solution resolved the third CDMA issue stated above. To address the remaining issues, the 621B program developed two prototype versions of CDMA navigation receivers (Magnavox and Hazeltine) for testing at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR).
These included: Fortunately, in 1967 a technique for selecting orthogonal codes was invented by an accomplished applied mathematician, Dr. For these initial 1971 tests, 621B arranged four transmitters in a configuration known as the inverted range.
In late 1968, the Air Force’s Nav Sat program in the Plans Office (XR) at the Space and Missile Systems Organization (SAMSO) was redesignated as 621B.
All of the various proposals that went forward from SAMSO to Headquarters came henceforth from the 621B office in XR.
In October 1970, more than four years after the completion of this study, Roger Easton of NRL applied for a patent on the two-satellite, ρ-ρ technique (option ) that required an atomic clock for the user and was only two-dimensional. The most capable option, circled in green, became the basis for the White Sands prototyping and testing, and then evolved into GPS.
NRL applied for a patent on the less capable technique (red line) four years after the Woodford/Nakamura Study was completed. From 1966 to 1972, program 621B continued with trade-off studies including: signal modulation, user data processing techniques, orbital configuration, orbital prediction, receiver accuracy, error analysis, system cost, and comprehensive estimates of the tactical mission benefits. In addition to CDMA, it is sometimes called spread spectrum, since the energy of the signal was spread over a wide range of radio frequencies.
Pioneering this signal were several outstanding scientists, Dr. Each was a binary (digital) sequence selected to be uncorrelated with other signals and also uncorrelated with time shifts of the signal itself.